The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine, which means it develops power from the combined action of pressure and moving water. The runner is placed directly in the water stream so the water is flowing over the blades rather than striking each individually. A Francis turbine has a runner with fixed blades, usually nine or more. Water is introduced just above the runner and all around it which then falls through, causing the blades to spin. Besides the runner, the other major components include a scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube. The Francis turbine was the first modern hydropower turbine and was invented by British-American engineer James Francis in 1848 and first used at the Lowell Hydroelectric Project (LIHI #142) in Massachusetts.